Maximizing the Potential of Multimedia in Indonesia: Enhancing Engagement, Accessibility, and Learning Outcomes

Article information

J Appropr Technol. 2023;9(3):235-245
Publication date (electronic) : 2023 December 30
doi :
Jakarta International University
To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:
Received 2023 September 18; Revised 2023 October 7; Accepted 2023 October 17.


The COVID-19 pandemic compelled educational institutions to swiftly shift from conventional classroom instruction to remote and hybrid learning models, prompting the widespread adoption of digital tools and mobile apps for online education. As the world emerges from this crisis, there's a growing interest in exploring innovative ways to utilize multimedia tools for improved engagement, accessibility, and learning outcomes. Multimedia encompasses diverse content formats, including videos, interactive simulations, and online collaboration tools, offering various avenues to enhance the process of teaching and learning. This research paper investigates the role of multimedia tools in education, focusing on their utilization, and the challenges and barriers associated with their integration into classroom settings within the Jakarta District of Indonesia's higher education sector. Qualitative research methods were employed, involving interviews, observations, and documentation analysis conducted at a higher education institution in Bekasi District, Indonesia. Interviews were conducted with the educators (providing learning materials). The study discovered that the incorporation of multimedia tools, such as images, videos, animations, and interactive platforms like Kahoot, enhances students' focus, interest, and engagement, consequently improving memory retention and comprehension. The research also identified various challenges in successfully incorporating multimedia tools into the field of education, including resource limitations, digital literacy gaps, connectivity issues, lecturer's unfamiliarity with technology, lack of motivation, inadequate digital tools, subscription costs, quality concerns, and potential distractions. The paper offers practical recommendations for successful multimedia integration in classrooms, emphasizing clear guidelines, brief video content, specific tasks for students, thought-provoking questions, early material distribution, and guidance in using ICT.


The COVID-19 pandemic, an unprecedented global crisis, sent shockwaves through the field of education, triggering abrupt shifts from traditional classroom-based instruction to remote and hybrid learning models worldwide. The educational field in Indonesia also undergo the impact of COVID-19. When Nadiem Anwar Makarim, the Minister of Education and Culture (Mendikbud) of Indonesia released Circular Letter Number 4 of 2020, which addressed the conduct of education during the COVID-19 emergency, educational institutions were directed to deliver educational material with a focus on online learning, aiming to offer students a meaningful learning experience during distance learning (Mendikbud RI, 2020).

The urgency of adapting to lockdowns and safety measures forced educational institutions to rapidly embrace digital technologies and mobile applications to facilitate the continuity of education in an online environment. As we gradually emerge from the pandemic's shadow, educational institutions face the task of redefining their pedagogical approaches and harnessing the transformative power of multimedia to enhance the engagement, accessibility, and learning outcomes.

The use of multimedia has been acknowledged as an integral part of the process of imparting as well as perceiving lessons in the classroom (Sarowardy and Halder, 2019). Multimedia refers to the combination of various media types, such as text (including alphabetic and numeric content), symbols, images, photographs, audio, video, and animations, typically employing technology to enhance comprehension or memorization (Guan et al., 2018). It enhances verbal guidance by incorporating static and dynamic visual elements using visualization technology to enhance communication and comprehension (Alemdag and Cagiltay, 2018; Chen and Liu, 2008). Multimedia technology encompasses both the hardware and software component necessary for developing and operating multimedia applications. (Kapi et al., 2017). Multimedia serves as an effective communication method by simplifying understanding and engagement through the incorporation of elements like animation, music, and video, which not only pique interest but also enable a broader audience to comprehend the message we want to deliver. This versatile tool facilitates conveying complex concepts, benefiting from technologies like radio, the internet, and globalization, allowing for captivating multimodal audio-visual presentations that transcend language barriers and enhance accessibility (Azubi, 2023). A learning method that is well-designed and creative by utilizing multimedia, will be able to increase students' chances of learning more, understanding what they are learning, and improving students' abilities (performance) to increase competency achievement (Miftah, 2018).

The utilization of media to enhance education by sparking student engagement, fostering curiosity, and demonstrating the applicability of diverse educational concepts (Baharuddin et al., 2021) has become more accessible to teachers, who now have access to a wealth of no-cost resources, particularly digital learning materials, that can be incorporated into their lessons.

An educational institution encounters challenges on three fronts: 1) students or learners, 2) teachers or instructor, and 3) available resources. (Sarowardy and Halder, 2019). Previous research in Indonesia shows that the ability to use ICT or multimedia tools of Indonesian teachers is still lacking (Sutama and Utama, 2017; Sutama et al., 2022), even though the role of teachers in designing and using multimedia tools is very important. Penuel et al. (2000) and Sarowardy et al. (2019) acknowledge that the primary hurdle in establishing a successful and student-engaging multimedia classroom lies with educators. They encounter difficulties in finding adequate time for presentation preparation, lack confidence in integrating multimedia into their teaching, receive limited technical support for its implementation, and face constraints regarding access to computers and necessary interfaces. These factors collectively present challenges in incorporating multimedia class presentations, as institutions possess limited resources that restrict teachers' utilization of available tools.

Hence, gaining an understanding of how teachers in Bekasi Regency incorporate multimedia tools into their teaching process is crucial. This entails exploring their preparation procedures, the obstacles they encounter while utilizing multimedia tools, and their strategies for surmounting these challenges.

Literature Review

The incorporation of digital instructional tools and resources within the educational system is no longer a matter of personal preference but a necessity, especially following widespread educational development programs that emphasize information technology as a crucial component of teaching (Aladwan, 2020). Nonetheless, there remains a need to persuade some educators to embrace these innovative approaches. Teachers who are unable to adapt to the data-driven aspects of the modern technological revolution hinder their ability to prepare students for new roles demanded by contemporary society. Thus, the importance of integrating technology in the classroom cannot be overstated. For the purpose of this study, our sample will be limited to higher education at the undergraduate degree level.

1. Multimedia tools in Education

Multimedia and digital learning resources enhance learning by using various media components like text, images, audio, and video to aid information processing. Research indicates that combining pictures with words in multimedia learning produces more positive results than using words alone (Chen and Liu, 2008; Mayer, 2008). Digital resources offer versatile pedagogical methods, introducing topics, demonstrating concepts, stimulating group activities, providing various text types, and engaging students interactively (Eady and Lockyer, 2013).

Multimedia tools in education can be categorized into teaching and learning tools, with several benefits, including incorporating abstract ideas into tangible content, efficiently presenting large volumes of information, stimulating student interest, and helping teachers assess student progress (Almara'beh et al., 2015). Multimedia tools designed for educational purposes play a crucial role in constructing mental images by combining text and visuals across a range of scenarios. It facilitates instructional presentations, traditional classroom and laboratory education, online learning, simulations, computer-based games, and virtual reality experiences. Familiarity with theories such as the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, which explores concepts like dual-channel processing, cognitive limitations, and active information processing, empowers educators to make more effective use of multimedia resources (Alemdag and Cagiltay, 2018).

Effective utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) reshapes the learning atmosphere, transitioning it from a teacher-centered approach to a learner-centered one. This transformation redefines the role of educators, turning them into facilitators and collaborative learners alongside their students. Utilizing multimedia technologies in education enhances productivity, motivation, interactivity, and the quality of instruction while meeting diverse learners' needs (Keengwe et al., 2008a).

2. Types of Multimedia Tools

Multimedia employs various formats like text, audio, visuals, animation, and video to share information, giving students flexibility in their learning. These tools provide teachers with diverse methods to involve students in learning within the classroom. The research article by Alzubi (2023) divides multimedia tools into 4 categories: 1) text-based applications, 2) interactive applications, 3) Web applications, and 4) mobile (smart) phone applications.

2.1 Text-Based Applications

Modern multimedia programs simplify content navigation, especially for text-based information, through searchable databases. Hypertext features within development tools allow users to seamlessly access different parts of the program. For instance, Microsoft's Windows help system utilizes hypertext for efficient searches. Effective navigation tools, such as overviews, tables of contents, or maps, enhance user experience. Microsoft Multimedia Viewer and Adobe Acrobat offer advanced tools for text-heavy software, including multimedia support and hypertext capabilities. These tools help users import content from various word processors and navigate through the material. In general, media players and editors also support text storage and navigation.

2.2 Interactive Applications

Interactive applications featuring graphics often represent multimedia learning tools. These applications are designed to accommodate diverse media formats, facilitate user engagement, and serve as comprehensive multimedia packages. Additionally, they provide a programming environment or a high-level language for managing navigation and user interactions. This feature proves especially advantageous in educational settings, as it allows for tailoring instruction to individual students based on their responses to questions and exercises. It's worth noting, however, that not all software programs excel equally in managing the complexities of interactive content.

2.3 Web Applications

A new wave of educational multimedia apps is expanding to reach people worldwide, thanks in part to the development of the internet and content management systems (CMS). These networks serve as the backbone for information distribution, catering to millions of users for both commercial and academic purposes. The internet allows web browsers to access a vast array of text, video, images, audio, and content from sources worldwide, with CMS facilitating easy navigation through hypertext links between pages. While the internet offers a wealth of information, its disorganized nature can make it challenging to find specific content. Nevertheless, this technology is well-suited for global academic multimedia applications.

2.4 Mobile (smart) Phone applications

Modern mobile phones have evolved to provide an extensive array of services beyond traditional voice calls. These services encompass text messaging, multimedia messaging, email, internet browsing, short-range wireless communication methods like Bluetooth and infrared, multimedia applications, photography, and gaming. Moreover, they serve as versatile tools for playing music, viewing images, and watching videos. Smartphones, a specific category of mobile devices, amalgamate these functionalities with computer-like capabilities. Mobile applications, commonly referred to as apps, are software programs tailored for diverse tasks on mobile devices, spanning from gaming and web browsing to managing social networks, and calendars, performing calculations, and displaying images.

3. Role of Multimedia Tools in Education

Numerous studies, that have explored the influence of multimedia technology on the educational system, strongly underscore the importance of utilizing multimedia tools in education. For example, Ramdan et al. (2015) emphasized how using multimedia tools in vocational school classes significantly improves students' learning. Numerous other studies also highlight the positive impact of multimedia on enhancing student learning (Triyanti, 2015; Wati, 2010; Hamdi et al., 2013; Rustini, 2014; Maharani, 2010; Wahyuni, 2011; Suryandaru, 2020).

Alzubi (2023) describe the role of multimedia tools as 1) Increased Student Engagement: Multimedia tools captivate students with visually appealing and interactive content, encouraging active participation and fostering a positive learning process; 2) Improved Learning Outcomes: These resources cater to different learning styles, providing a range of avenues for students to engage with and grasp information. This variety ultimately contributes to enhanced learning results through the utilization of multimedia presentations, videos, simulations, and interactive materials. 3) Access and Equity: Ensuring equitable access to technology and resources is essential to prevent a digital divide and ensure all students and educators can benefit from multimedia tools; 4) Digital Resources Access: Through multimedia tools, students gain entry to a broad spectrum of digital materials, such as open educational resources, videos, simulations, and websites. This broadens their knowledge base and aids in their learning efforts; 5) Enhanced Critical Thinking Abilities: Multimedia tools encourage critical thinking by presenting real-life scenarios, challenges, or simulations that necessitate analysis, assessment, and decision-making. This fosters the development of advanced cognitive abilities essential for success in both academic and professional spheres; 6) Pedagogical Aspects: To effectively design and implement multimedia-enriched lessons, educators must have pedagogical expertise and skills. This, in turn, mandates training and professional development opportunities; 7) Quality of Content: Careful ev aluation of multimedia content is crucial to align it with curriculum standards and learning objectives, ensuring accuracy, relevance, and appropriateness, 8) Potential Distractions: While multimedia enhances engagement, it can also be distracting if not used judiciously, emphasizing the need for content moderation and clarity; 9) Data Privacy and Security: Employing multimedia tools can encompass the collection of student data, requiring adherence to data privacy regulations and the implementation of safeguards to secure students' personal information, thereby guaranteeing their privacy and security. Multimedia technology undoubtedly enhances education, but it comes with various drawbacks. These limitations encompass issues like user-unfriendly interfaces, resource scarcity, insufficient expertise, time constraints, and high maintenance costs, as highlighted by Al-Ajmi and Aljazzaf (2020) and Putra (2018).

Research Methodology

This research applied a qualitative method, which is appropriate for exploring the issues and challenges related to using multimedia in a specific context, such as a university with a district focus (Bernard, 1994). Qualitative research helps describe and understand situations, phenomena, problems, or events on a nominal scale. Data was collected through interviews observation, and literature analysis.

1. Study Population and Sample

The subjects of this study were lectures in Bekasi District, Indonesia. There were 12 active lecturers from 5 different study programs who were selected to be participants. The participants comprised seven men and five women, ranging in age from 29 to 41 years old. The object of this study was the multimedia tools utilization in classrooms at higher education in Bekasi Regency, Indonesia.

2. Data Collection

2.1 Interview Method

In this study, the interview approach used is semi-structured, which means it combines both open and closed-ended questions. This type of interview encourages the interviewee to introduce new ideas during the conversation based on their responses (Newcomer et al., 2015). During the data collection process, the researcher adhered to ethical principles. This included transparently communicating the research objectives to the participants, ensuring their voluntary participation without coercion, maintaining the confidentiality of participants' private information, and presenting the data in alignment with the details provided by the participants.

Interviews were conducted individually, each lasting between 20 to 60 minutes, with the interviewees responding to a consistent set of questions. These questions covered topics such as student profiles in their class, the integration of multimedia tools in teaching, student reactions to using multimedia for learning, the utility of multimedia tools in lesson preparation and delivery, challenges encountered in their use, and the strategies employed to address these challenges. An audio recording of the interviews was made to enable a thorough review and identification of emerging themes, ensuring fidelity to the participants' descriptions of their use of multimedia tools in learning.

2.2 Observation Method

The observation method is used to directly observe the process of utilizing multimedia tools by lecturers in the classroom. Researchers joined and utilized the multimedia tools organized by teachers, such as Google Driv e, Google Classroom, and WhatsApp Groups used by teachers.

2.3 Literature analysis

A literature analysis method was employed to gather data and insights concerning multimedia tools, encompassing both printed and online resources. Furthermore, the study incorporates expert opinions extracted from pertinent scientific journals to support the discussion section. The meaning and relevance of these expert statements are rooted in the content of the scientific literature. Thus, the research methodology primarily revolves around a literature-based approach, which involves an extensive examination of pertinent scientific journals and the inclusion of expert viewpoints to enhance the discussion section. These expert statements likely draw from the existing body of literature and offer additional insights and viewpoints on the topic under investigation.

3. Data Analysis

Once the interviews have been completed, the next step involves transcribing the interview responses. Following this, we employ an inductive approach, specifically narrative analysis, to dissect the transcript. Narrative analysis entails the interpretation of the personal stories shared by the interviewees. This qualitative data analysis method allows us to emphasize crucial elements of their narratives that are most pertinent to the topic (Anggito and Setiawan, 2018). Moreover, it helps us draw attention to key findings discovered in other aspects of the research, thereby enriching our understanding of the subject matter.

Result and Discussion

This study involved 12 lecturers in Bekasi Regency, Indonesia. These articles describe 1) the Utilization of Multimedia tools in the classroom and 2) Barriers to utilizing Multimedia Tools.

1. Utilization of Multimedia Tools

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, lecturers in Bekasi Regency had already been integrating multimedia tools into their classrooms as educational aids. They unanimously recognized the significant benefits of these tools, noting that they enhanced student focus, improved the quality of class discussions and interactions, heightened students' critical thinking abilities, and better prepared students for lectures. Furthermore, the availability of easily accessible lecture materials empowered students to independently review and engage with their learning materials.

The multimedia tools commonly used by lecturers in Bekasi Regency encompassed a wide array, including PowerPoint (often created using Canva, Google Slides, and Ms Power Point), video resources from platforms like YouTube and HUF Open Course Ware, social media such as Instagram, e-books, e-journals, cloud storage through Google Drive, online classroom platforms like Google Classroom, learning management systems like Mekari and Corporate Finance Institute (CFI), communication tools like email and WhatsApp, interactive tools like, and decision-making aids like the "wheel to decide." The consensus was that these multimedia tools significantly enhanced student engagement and assisted lecturers in conveying complex material in an accessible and enjoyable manner.

Due to the absence of an integrated Learning Management System (LMS), lecturers adopt a hybrid approach, leveraging a combination of multiple platforms in their teaching practices. For instance, they utilize WhatsApp and Google Drive as essential tools for storing student assignments and disseminating course materials. Typically, at the commencement of a course, instructors establish a WhatsApp group encompassing all enrolled students and the teaching faculty. This WhatsApp group serves a multifaceted role in the educational process: 1) Information Dissemination: WhatsApp is employed as a real-time communication channel during lectures, enabling instructors to convey crucial information promptly, 2) News Sharing: Lecturers utilize WhatsApp to share pertinent news and updates related to course content, ensuring students stay informed, 3) Feedback Mechanism: WhatsApp facilitates direct feedback to students, promoting effective communication between instructors and learners. Maximizing WhatsApp's functionality and effectiveness involves creating chances for students to ask questions both individually and within group contexts. Additionally, consistently offering feedback within the WhatsApp group ensures that students are aware of their learning progress and outcomes.

To efficiently manage the distribution of course materials and collection of student assignments, lecturers turn to Google Drive, where they create dedicated folders and resources. Students are granted access to these Google Drive resources, ensuring ease of use and access to course materials. It's worth noting that access to Google Drive is securely restricted to official university-provided email addresses, safeguarding the integrity and privacy of course-related content.

Additionally, lecturers make use of an accredited Learning Management System (LMS) accessible online, providing students with the flexibility to engage in learning without temporal or geographical constraints.

For instance, accounting instructors integrate CFI (Corporate Finance Institute) as an educational platform within their courses. Students enrolled in the accounting program are required to register and actively participate in learning through this LMS. To ensure seamless utilization, students receive explicit guidelines detailing the LMS's functionalities, along with deadlines and prerequisites for obtaining a certificate, which serves as a mandatory component of the course assessment. This integration of a certified LMS not only enhances the learning experience but also aligns with modern educational trends, offering students the convenience of accessing resources and coursework at their own pace and from any location.

2. Effective Strategies for Utilizing Multimedia Tools

Several effective approaches emerged from the research:

- Clear Instruction and Objectives: To enhance the utility of these tools, teachers at Bekasi Regency begin by articulating the purpose and objectives behind their use. This proactive approach helps students maintain focus and direction, mentally and physically preparing them for the task at hand. Moreover, instructors provide clear instructions on how to utilize these multimedia tools. This aligns with theory of Morrison et al. (2010) on the principles of designing effective instruction. Providing students with clear instructions and objectives for using multimedia tools ensures they understand their purpose and expectations.

- Follow-up Assignments: Despite students being informed about instructions and learning objectives presented through multimedia tools, they often fail to act on them due to a lack of supervision and follow-up to gauge their understanding of the material. Consequently, there is a need for follow-up measures. Assigning follow-up such as thought-provoking questions related to the material that encourages critical thinking and deeper analysis encourage students to actively engage with these resources, reinforcing their utility in the learning process. Research suggests that active learning strategies, such as follow-up assignments, enhance the effectiveness of multimedia tool integration (Prince, 2004).

- Material Distribution: In practice, lecturers at Bekasi Regency distribute the teaching material and multimedia tools for use in lessons a day prior to the class. This affords students the opportunity to preview the material, fostering interactive and seamless learning. It also bolsters student engagement, as they enter the class with a preliminary grasp of the subject matter. Additionally, instructors can assess individual student readiness for the lecture.

- Short Videos: Short videos were found to be more effective in maintaining student focus compared to longer videos, which could lead to reduced attention spans.

- Instructional Guidance in ICT: Recognizing that many students remain unfamiliar with information and communication technology (ICT) and multimedia, lecturers take proactive steps to provide guidance on their utilization. They have found that this preliminary guidance helps solidify student understanding and mitigate technical issues, which frequently disrupt the flow of learning and engagement. Providing students with brief explanations on how to access and utilize multimedia tools ensures they are well-equipped to make the most of these resources.

3. Challenges and Barriers to Utilizing Multimedia Tools

Despite the clear benefits, several challenges and barriers were identified:

- Digital Literacy Gaps: One of the most significant challenges is the digital literacy gap among students, especially those from remote areas or disadvantaged backgrounds (Warschauer, 2003). Lecturers depicted the impact of their students' backgrounds on the utilization of multimedia tools. Their student body is drawn from various regions across Indonesia, and it is undeniable that a significant disparity exists in their proficiency and comprehension of multimedia applications. Students hailing from urban centres seem to adapt more readily to multimedia tools, even when introduced to novel ones. Conversely, students from remote areas often grapple with the complexities of multimedia tools. Even basic tasks, such as navigating features in software like Microsoft Word, remain unfamiliar to many. This gap can result in unequal access to educational resources and hinder the overall learning experience.

- Limited Access to Laptops: Adding to the challenge is the fact that a considerable number of students, particularly freshmen, lack access to laptops. Instead, they rely on their smartphones to access and engage with multimedia learning materials. In the process of employing multimedia tools, instructors frequently observe a lack of effectiveness. This limitation often time restrict their ability to fully participate in multimedia-rich educational activities, as many multimedia tools require a personal computer for optimal use.

- Internet Connectivity Issues: Internet connectivity problems have been a persistent issue in online education (Hodges et al., 2020). Similar challenges found in previous research in several different areas in the world, in Bekasi Regency, a city classified as large and advanced, internet connectivity issues remain unavoidable. Slow or inconsistent internet connections disrupt the process of utilizing multimedia tools, making it challenging for students and teachers to access and utilize multimedia resources effectively.

- Unfamiliarity with Smart Room Tools: The university has made a significant effort to facilitate the use of multimedia tools in the classroom. This includes equipping each classroom with an LCD screen and designating one classroom as a smart classroom with installations of smart TVs and controllable cameras. While the institutions may have invested in advanced technology infrastructure, some lecturers still lack the necessary skills and familiarity to use these tools effectively. This knowledge gap can hinder the seamless integration of multimedia tools into the teaching and learning experiences.

- Technical Difficulties: Technical issues, such as LCD projector errors, software glitches, or device malfunctions, can disrupt the smooth flow of classes. These disruptions can be frustrating for both educators and students and may lead to a loss of valuable instructional time.

- Integration Challenges: One of their primary challenges revolves around the integration of multimedia into the curriculum and syllabus. Incorporating multimedia tools into the curriculum and pedagogical approaches can be a complex process. The lecturer needs to align multimedia resources with learning objectives and adapt their teaching methods, which may require additional time and effort.

- Lack of Motivation for Skill Development: Faculty development plays a vital role since educators frequently find themselves lacking the essential skills and knowledge required for maximizing the potential of multimedia tools (Zhang and Espinoza, 2019). Some lecturers candidly acknowledged a lack of motivation to stay current with technological advancements.

- Subscription Costs: Many multimedia tools and platforms require paid subscriptions, which can be a financial barrier for both educational institutions, lecturers, and students. Lecturers struggle to afford the necessary licenses, while students face challenges accessing tools due to the associated costs.

- Lack of Standardization: Each lecturer does their utmost to make use of the available resources. While the dedication and effort is commended, the absence of standardized Learning Management Systems (LMS) or multimedia tools can create confusion and inefficiencies in the educational process. Lecturers and students need to adapt to different tools and platforms, which can be time-consuming and frustrating. Lecturers have noted that students frequently miss assignment or teaching material simply because they become perplexed by the differing multimedia tools employed by different lecturers in the classroom for communicating and storing teaching materials.

- Quality Concerns: In an age where Google and the internet provide instant access to information, it has become remarkably convenient to find data online. Nevertheless, such accessibility doesn’t inherently assure the quality or reliability of the content available. Lecturers in Bekasi Regency acknowledge the significant responsibility they bear in filtering and verifying the validity of the information they utilize.

- Potential Distraction: While multimedia tools can enhance the learning experience, they also pose the risk of distractions. During the learning process, students may be tempted to use multimedia devices for non-educational purposes during class, leading to decreased focus and engagement.

Addressing these challenges and barriers requires a comprehensive approach that includes digital literacy training, investment in infrastructure and connectivity, ongoing professional development for educators, and thoughtful curriculum design. By addressing these issues, educational institutions can better harness the potential of multimedia tools to enhance the learning experience for all students.

Conclusion and Recommendations

The findings of this research underscore the profound positive impact that multimedia tools have had on classroom teaching in Bekasi Regency, Indonesia. These tools have not only enhanced student engagement but also facilitated more dynamic and effective learning experiences for both lecturers and students.

However, as our study has illuminated, the journey towards maximizing the utilization of multimedia tools is not without its hurdles. Challenges such as digital literacy gaps, technical issues, limited access to necessary devices, and the need for standardized resources have emerged as significant barriers in this educational landscape. These barriers, if left unaddressed, risk hindering the full potential of multimedia tools and their transformative effects on education.

Nonetheless, the research offers a ray of hope through its exploration of effective strategies and recommendations to overcome these challenges. Several recommendations to Tackle Challenges and Barriers:

- ICT Maintenance: Regular maintenance of ICT tools is essential to prevent disruptions during classes (Al-Azawei et al., 2017). While there are tools accessible for the integration of multimedia in the classroom, it's crucial to emphasize the significance of regular maintenance. Failure to maintain these tools can introduce unexpected hurdles. For instance, a malfunction in the LCD cable can result in technical disruptions that disrupt the learning process in the classroom. Hence, the maintenance of information and communication technology (ICT) is of utmost importance. Consistent upkeep proves to be not only more cost-effective but also prevents the need for costly repairs or even the replacement of equipment in the event of breakdowns.

- Faculty Development: Ongoing faculty development programs, including training on multimedia tool integration, are vital for addressing teacher readiness (Ertmer et al., 2012). Implementing periodic training for lecturers on multimedia tool utilization, trends, integration into pedagogy, and content creation can address many challenges.

- Access to Laptops: Ensuring that students have access to laptops or alternative devices can overcome a significant barrier to utilization. One of the things that educational institutions can do is to open the computer lab or provide a public computer that can be accessed and utilized by the students.

- Digital Literacy Programs: Implementing digital literacy programs can bridge the gap for students from remote areas.

- Standardization Efforts: Universities could work toward standardizing LMS and multimedia tools for more effective use. The development of standardized LMS platforms can enhance consistency and usability (Zhu et al., 2020).

- Content Quality Assurance: Establishing processes to assess and ensure content quality can boost confidence in utilizing multimedia resources. Ensuring the quality of multimedia content is critical. Faculty members can collaborate with instructional designers to create high-quality materials (Ko and Rossen, 2017). Besides that, continuous assessment and peer review can help maintain content quality (Bates and Sangrà, 2011).

- Motivation and Incentives: Encouraging and incentivizing lecturers to update their skills can promote the effective use of multimedia tools.

- Access Subsidies: Offering subsidies or institutional support for subscription-based platforms can improve access.

- Mitigating Distraction: Implementing guidelines and best practices to minimize distractions during multimedia tool utilization can enhance the learning experience (Junco and Cotton, 2012).

Implementing multimedia tools in the classroom undoubtedly demands a substantial financial commitment. This includes expenses for acquiring the necessary equipment, ongoing maintenance, providing training for educators in ICT and multimedia tool utilization, as well as offering incentives to motivate teachers. Therefore, educational institutions should earmark specific funds for ICT adoption. These funds can be allocated according to distinct needs and further segmented based on usage timelines, allowing for precise budget projections.

Additionally, educational institutions can explore potential external assistance, either from government sources or private sectors, both domestically and internationally. Currently, in countries like Indonesia, government funding for ICT procurement primarily targets elementary to upper secondary level schools, leaving tertiary education with limited support. Similarly, the provision of training on the latest ICT and multimedia tools remains insufficient, often relying on self-guided modules. In such cases, educational institutions can seek collaboration with external partners, including universities, especially those from developing nations, as a potential solution.

Educational institutions should actively explore opportunities for securing funding from various organizations dedicated to promoting ICT development and utilization. For instance: 1) National Science Foundation (NSF): NSF offers grants and financial support tailored to research and educational endeavors spanning a wide spectrum of ICT-related fields; 2) The World Bank: The World Bank represents a potential source of funding, particularly for ICT infrastructure and developmental projects within educational institutions, with a particular emphasis on institutions in developing nations; 3) Tech Companies and Foundations: Numerous technology enterprises and their associated foundations, including initiatives such as the Impact Challenge, extend grants and financial backing expressly designated for ICT-centric projects within the realm of education; 3) Nonprofit Organizations: A myriad of nonprofit organizations, among them the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, actively champion ICT initiatives in the education sector by way of grants and specialized initiatives; 4) Venture Capital: Certain venture capital firms specialize in investments pertaining to educational technology (EdTech) and may be inclined to provide funding for pioneering ICT projects; 5) Educational Technology Competitions: Participation in technological competitions and challenging events, such as hackathons or innovation contests, has the potential to result in financial awards and substantial backing earmarked for the advancement of ICT within educational contexts.

To optimize the prospects of securing funding from these diverse sources, educational institutions should proactively explore and engage with each organization's specific priorities and application procedures. Building robust partnerships and networks within the ICT and educational technology spheres is instrumental in effectively obtaining the resources necessary for the development and implementation of ICT initiatives. Moreover, staying well-informed about newly emerging opportunities and updates from these sources is vital for success in acquiring essential funding for ICT development and utilization.

In conclusion, the integration of multimedia tools in Indonesian university classrooms holds immense promise, but realizing this potential demands a concerted effort to tackle the identified challenges. By doing so, we can ensure that these tools continue to enrich the educational experience, fostering an environment where lecturers and students thrive in their pursuit of knowledge and excellence.

The current study primarily focuses on teachers' roles as providers and users of multimedia tools in the classroom. Future research could extend its scope to investigate multimedia tool utilization from the students' standpoint on how students perceive and interact with multimedia tools. Future studies also will want to explore different pedagogical approaches and strategies that optimize the use of multimedia tools and can offer practical insights for educators on how to design and deliver multimedia-enhanced lessons effectively. Additionally, future researchers may want to conduct comparative studies that analyze the utilization of various multimedia tools across different educational settings, subjects, or levels can help identify best practices and tailor recommendations to specific contexts.


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